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Aerospace Defense Command
Air Defense Command

Home of the F-106 Delta Dart

Air Defense of the Continental United States had its beginning when Major General Hap Arnold recommended an Air Defense Command Unit composed of Air Corps, Coast Guard Artillery, and Signal Corps be formed. On 26 February 1950 the unit was officially activated at Mitchell Field under the command of Brig Gen. James E. Chaney, an Air Corps officer. Although the command was deactivated fourteen months later, it provided the ground work for the future Air Defense Command.

Air Defense Command
(pre-Aerospace Defense Command)

Aerospace Defense Command
On March 1946, Air Defense Command was organized as a major command, and on 1 December 1946 was placed under Continental Air Command. On I July 1950 ADC was discontinued; however, it was reactivated as a major command again on 1 January 1951. Air Defense Command was re-designated Aerospace Defense Command on 15 January 1968, and on 31 July 1975 it became a specified command under NORAD and JCS control.

During the 30-plus years of its existence the command has undergone many changes. One thing has not changed though; the men and women of the Command have provided the country with a continual shield against air attack. Starting with detection and warning and ending with the interceptors and aircrews standing alert to launch at a moment's notice.

In this issue of the magazine we have included an historic, and possibly nostalgic, sketch of the command by including brief histories of all (93 to be exact) the fighter interceptor squadrons assigned to the command as its alert force. These are just the active Air Force Squadrons that have been in the command. Time and space did not allow us to include the 76 Air National Guard Squadrons, several Naval Squadrons, radar squadrons, training squadrons and numerous support units that have played important roles in our nation's defense.

For brevity we have omitted some actions that affected all the squadrons in the command at that time. They are: 11 June 1948 when the P designation of all fighter aircraft was changed to F; 20 January 1948 when Fighter Squadrons became Fighter Interceptor Squadrons; and 18 August 1955 when a number of changes in unit designations took place under "Project Arrow." This restored many squadrons to the wings and groups to which they had belonged during World War II.

Air Divisions of the F-106

20AD Lineage: Established as 20 Air Division (Defense) on 8 Jun 1955. Activated on 8 Oct 1955. Inactivated on 1 Jan 1960. Re-designated 20 Air Division, and activated, on 20 Jan 1966. Organized on 1 Apr 1966. Discontinued, and inactivated, on 31 Dec 1967. Activated on 19 Nov 1969. Inactivated on 1 Mar 1983.

Assignments: Central Air Defense Force, 8 Oct 1955-1 Jan 1960. Air Defense Command, 20 Jan 1966; Tenth Air Force, 1 Apr 1966-31 Dec 1967. Aerospace Defense Command, 19 Nov 1969; Tactical Air Command, 1 Oct 1979-1 Mar 1983.

Components: Sioux City Air Defense: 1 Oct 1959-1 Jan 1960.

Groups: 53 Fighter: 1 Mar 1956-1 Jan 1960. 327 Fighter: 1 Apr-25 Jun 1966. 328 Fighter: 1 Mar 1956-1 Jan 1960. 678 Air Defense: 1 Mar 1970-1 Mar 1983. 701 Air Defense: 1 Mar 1970-17 Jan 1974.

Squadrons: 22 Air Defense Missile: 19 Nov 1969-31 Oct 1972. 48 Fighter Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-1 Mar 1983. 85 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Mar 1956-1 Jul 1959. 95 Fighter Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-31 Jan 1973.

Stations: Grandview (later, Richards Gebaur) AFB, MO, 8 Oct 1955-1 Jan 1960. Truax Field, WI, 1 Apr 1966-31 Dec 1967. Fort Lee AFS, VA, 19 Nov 1969; Tyndall AFB, FL, 1 Mar 1983-1 Mar 1983.

Commanders: Brig Gen Clifford H. Rees, 8 Oct 1955; Brig Gen Gordon H. Austin, 10 Mar 1958; Brig Gen Theron Coulter, 14 Sep 1958; Col John H. Bell, 8 Jul 1959-1 Jan 1960. Brig Gen William S. Harrell, 1 Apr 1966; Col Wallace P. Mace, 1 Jul 1966; Maj Gen Jack K. Gamble, 19 Nov 1969; Brig Gen James M. Fogle, 20 Mar 1972; Maj Gen James S. Murphy, 26 Aug 1974; Col Thomas G. McConnell, 20 Aug 1975; Brig Gen Francis A. Humphreys Jr., 15 Oct 1975; Brig Gen Edward L. Tixier, 10 Jul 1978; Col Edward Levell Jr., 22 Jan 1979; Brig Gen Edward L. Tixier, 1 Feb 1980; Brig Gen Paul D. Wagoner, 19 Jun 1980-1 Mar 1983.

Aircraft and Missiles: F-86, 1956-1959; F-89, 1956-1957; F-102, 1957-1960; F-101, 1959-1960. F-106, 1969-1981; BOMARC, 1969-1972; F-15, 1981-1983.

Operations: On 8 June 1955, the 20th Air Division (Defense) assumed responsibility for the air defense of an area that covered parts of Nebraska, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, and virtually all of Kansas and Missouri. In 1966, it provided air defense for parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, and all of Illinois. It supervised Air National Guard units that flew interception sorties using, among others, F 101 and F 106 aircraft, while at the same time controlling numerous radar squadrons. Beginning in Nov 1969, the 20th provided air defense for virtually all of the southeastern United States, except for most of Louisiana. After 1981, it controlled units equipped with F 15 aircraft, while its subordinate units continued to participate in intensive academic training, numerous multi-region simulated (non-flying) exercises, and flying exercises.

Service Streamers: None.

Campaign Streamers: None.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers: None.

Decorations: None.

Emblem: On a shield azure, an American Bald Eagle, wings surgeant tergiant, tips to dexter, perched on the beam of the Liberty Bell all proper; flanked on the dexter with an aerial burst gules, two aircraft with jet vapor streams in flight, fesswise, argent, markings sable, and a radome proper, resting on a land mass argent, all in pale. (Approved 20 Aug 1956.)

Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 1 Mar 1983.

Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 1 Mar 1983.

21AD Lineage: Established as 21 Bombardment Wing on 16 Dec 1942. Activated on 22 Dec 1942. Redesignated I Staging Command on 27 Sep 1945. Inactivated on 3 Apr 1946. Activated in the Reserve on 20 Dec 1946. Redesignated: 21 Bombardment Wing, Very Heavy on 31 Dec 1946; 21 Air Division, Bombardment on 16 Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. Redesignated 21 Air Division on 5 Feb 1951. Activated on 16 Feb 1951. Inactivated on 8 Apr 1952. Organized on 8 Apr 1952. Discontinued on 16 Oct 1952. Activated on 16 Oct 1952. Redesignated 21 Strategic Aerospace Division on 15 Feb 1962. Discontinued, and inactivated, on 1 Sep 1964. Redesignated 21 Air Division, and activated, on 20 Jan 1966. Organized on 1 Apr 1966. Discontinued, and inactivated, on 31 Dec 1967. Activated on 19 Nov 1969. Inactivated on 23 Sep 1983.

Assignments: Second Air Force, 22 Dec 1942; Continental Air Forces, 18 Jul 45; Fourth Air Force, c. 23 Nov 1945-3 Apr 1946. Fourteenth Air Force, 20 Dec 1946; Ninth Air Force, 22 Dec 1948; Fourteenth Air Force, 1 Feb-27 Jun 1949. Strategic Air Command, 16 Feb 1951-8 Apr 1952. Strategic Air Command, 8 Apr 1952; Fifteenth Air Force, 16 Jul-16 Oct 1952. Fifteenth Air Force, 16 Oct 1952; Eighth Air Force, 1 Jul 1955; Second Air Force, 1 Jan 1959-1 Sep 1964. Air Defense Command, 20 Jan 1966; First Air Force, 1 Apr 1966-31 Dec 1967. Aerospace Defense Command, 19 Nov 1969; Tactical Air Command, 1 Oct 1979-23 Sep 1983.

Components: Air Forces. Air Forces Iceland: 31 Dec 1969-1 Oct 1975.

Wings. 40 Bombardment (later, 40 Strategic Aerospace): 20 Jun 1960-1 Sep 1964. 44 Bombardment: 4 Aug 1951-8 Apr 1952. 8 Apr-16 Jun 1952. 48 Staging: 18 Jul 1945-c. 21 Mar 1946. 52 Fighter: 1 Apr 1966-1 Dec 1967. 55 Strategic Reconnaissance: 1-16 Oct 1952. 16 Oct 1952-1 Sep 1964. 68 Strategic Reconnaissance: 10 Oct 1951-8 Apr 1952. 8 Apr-c. 15 May 1952. 90 Bombardment (later, 90 Strategic Reconnaissance): 14 Mar 1951-8 Apr 1952. 8 Apr-16 Oct 1952. 16 Oct 1952-20 Jun 1960. 308 Bombardment: attached 10 Oct 1951-8 Apr 1952; 8-17 Apr 1952. 310 Bombardment: attached 28 Mar-4 Sep 1952. 376 Bombardment: attached 1 Jun-10 Oct 1951. 551 Airborne Early Warning and Control: 4-31 Dec 1969.

Groups. 52 Fighter: 19 Nov-31 Dec 1969. 95 Bombardment: 29 May 1947-27 Jun 1949. 333 Bombardment: attached 15 Jul 1942-21 Feb 1943. 346 Bombardment: attached 7 Sep 1942-25 Feb 1943. 384 Bombardment: 16 Jul 1947-27 Jun 1949.

Squadrons. 26 Air Defense Missile: 19 Nov 1969-30 Apr 1972. 27 Fighter Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-1 Jul 1971. 35 Air Defense Missile: 19 Nov-31 Dec 1969. 46 Air Defense Missile: Apr 1966-1 Dec 1967; 19 Nov 1969-31 Oct 1972. 49 Fighter Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-23 Sep 1983. 60 Fighter Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-30 Apr 1971. 83 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Jul 1971-30 Jun 1972. 87 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Aug 1981-23 Sep 1983. 95 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Apr 1966-1 Dec 1967. 373 Bombardment: attached 10 Oct 1951-8 Apr 1952; 8-17 Apr 1952. 374 Bombardment: attached 10 Oct 1951-8 Apr 1952; 8-17 Apr 1952. 375 Bombardment: attached 10 Oct 1951-8 Apr 1952; 8-17 Apr 1952. 539 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Apr 1966-31 Aug 1967.

Stations: Smoky Hill AAFld, KS, 22 Dec 1942; Topeka AAFld, KS, 31 May 1943; Merced AAFld (later, Castle Field), CA, 7 Oct 1945-3 Apr 1946. Memphis Municipal Airport, TN, 20 Dec 1946-27 Jun 1949. Forbes AFB, KS, 16 Feb 1951-8 Apr 1952. Forbes AFB, KS, 8 Apr-16 Oct 1952. Forbes AFB, KS, 16 Oct 1952-1 Sep 1964. McGuire AFB, NJ, 1 Apr 1966-31 Dec 1967. Hancock Field, NY, 19 Nov 1969; Griffiss AFB, NY, 31 Aug-23 Sep 1983.

Commanders: Brig Gen Albert F. Hegenberger, 22 Dec 1942; Col Henry W. Harms, c. Feb 1944; Col Cornelius W. Cousland, 26 Dec 1944; Col Wallace S. Dawson, 21 Jan 1945; Col Ralph E. Koon, 29 May 1945; Brig Gen James M. Fitzmaurice, 19 Jul 1945-c. Apr 1946. Brig Gen Everett R. Cook, 1947-1949. Maj Gen David W. Hutchison, 16 Mar 1951-8 Apr 1952. Maj Gen David W. Hutchison, 8 Apr-16 Oct 1952. Maj Gen David W. Hutchison, 16 Oct 1952; Brig Gen Joseph D. C. Caldara, 4 Dec 1952; Brig Gen David Wade, 15 Apr 1954; Brig Gen Henry R. Sullivan Jr., 25 Jul 1955; Brig Gen Ariel W. Nielsen, 7 Sep 1957; Brig Gen Richard O. Hunziker, 16 Jul 1960; Col Richard N. Ellis, 16 Aug 1962-unkn. None (not manned), 20 Jan-31 Mar 1966; Col Albert L. Evans, 1 Apr 1966-31 Dec 1967. Maj Gen George V. Williams, 19 Nov 1969; Maj Gen James L. Price, 15 Feb 1972; Maj Gen Ray A. Robinson Jr., by 30 Sep 1973; Maj Gen Richard H. Schoeneman, 11 Aug 1975; Brig Gen Carl S. Miller, 7 Nov 1977; Col Gary K. Carroll, 22 Jan 1979; Brig Gen Alonzo L. Ferguson, 1 Feb 1980; Brig Gen Kenneth W. North, 7 Aug 1982-23 Sep 1983.

Aircraft and Missiles: B-29, 1951-1952; RB-9, 1951, 1952; TB-29, 1951-1952; KC-97, 1952; RB-50, 1952. B-29, 1952; RB-29, 1952-1954; TB-29, 1952; KC-97, 1952, 1955-1962; RB-50, 1952-1954; KB-29, 1953-1954; EB/RB-47, 1954-1964; B-47, 1960-1962; Atlas, 1964; BOMARC, 1966-1967; F-101, 1966-1967. BOMARC, 1969-1972; C-121, 1969; EC-121, 1969; F-101, 1969-1971; F-106, 1969-1983.

Operations: The 21st functioned as a staging wing, and later as a command, processing heavy bombardment crews and aircraft for overseas movement, and then processing men returning from overseas, from 1942-1946. From Dec 1946, it performed routine training duties in the Reserve through 27 Jun 1949. Beginning in Feb 1951, the division trained aircrews for medium bombardment wings, bomber replacement crews, and replacements for strategic reconnaissance slots until Sep 1964. It took on an air defense role in Jan 1966, assuming responsibility for defense of parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. During this time, it participated in air defense training exercises, accomplished live and simulated intercepts, and directed numerous flying sorties until inactivation in Dec 1967. Upon reactivation in 1969, it carried out the same duties but changed geographic locations and covered most of New England except for the upper half of Maine.

Service Streamers. World War II American Theater.

Campaign Streamers. None.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. None.

Decorations. Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards: 1 Jul 1973-30 Jun 1974; 1 Jul 1974-30 Jun 1975.

Emblem: Shield divided by a diagonal line from the upper right to middle left, light blue and white, a sword slanting from upper left to lower right, the point to lower right base, the hilt and pommel yellow encircled with five stars, yellow, the lower blade of the sword over a branch of olive in base green. (Approved 17 Jul 1952.)

Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 23 Sep 1983.

Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 23 Sep 1983.
23AD
Lineage  Established as 23 Air Division on 18 Nov 1969. Activated on 19 Nov 1969. Inactivated on 1 Jul 1987..

Assignments  Aerospace Defense Command, 19 Nov 1969; Tactical Air Command, 1 Oct 1979; First Air Force, 6 Dec 1985-1 Jul 1987.

Components  Wing. 1 Fighter: 1-31 Dec 1969.  Group. 343 Fighter: 19 Nov 1969-28 Aug 1970.

Squadrons. 2 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Jul 1971-31 Mar 1973. 37 Air Defense Missile: 19 Nov 1969-31 Jul 1972. 48 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Mar 1983-1 Jul 1987. 62 Fighter Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-30 Apr 1971. 74 Air Defense Missile: 19 Nov 1969-30 Apr 1972. 87 Fighter Interceptor: 28 Aug 1970-1 Aug 1981. 94 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Dec 1969-1 Jul 1971.

Stations  Duluth International Airport, MN, 19 Nov 1969; Tyndall AFB, FL, 15 Apr 1982-1 Jul 1987

Commanders  Brig Gen Clayton M. Isaacson, 19 Nov 1969; Brig Gen Guy Hurst Jr., 1 Aug 1970; Brig Gen Louis G. Leiser, 13 Mar 1972; Col James J. Kleckner, 26 Jul 1974 (interim); Brig Gen George C. Cannon Jr., 19 Aug 1974; Brig Gen Mervin M. Taylor, 12 Jul 1976; Col Kenneth W. Ohlinger, 27 Sep 1976 (temporary); Brig Gen Edward L. Ellis, 7 Mar 1977; Col Rondall H. Stull, 22 Jan 1979; Brig Gen Charles E. Bishop, 28 Jan 1980; Col John F. Manning, 23 Nov 1981; None (not manned), 15 Apr 1982-Feb 1983; Brig Gen Paul D. Wagoner, 1 Mar 1983; Brig Gen Charles A. Horner, 23 May 1983; Brig Gen Donald R. Delauter, 11 Oct 1983; Brig Gen James M. Rhodes Jr., 11 Apr 1986-1 Jul 1987.


Aircraft and Missiles  BOMARC, 1969-1972; F-106, 1969-1981; F-15, 1983-1987.

Operations  The 23d assumed responsibility for the air defense of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and parts of Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, and Kentucky on 19 Nov 1969. By 1973, this area expanded to include parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Mississippi. The division and its subordinate units participated in numerous exercises such as Amalgam Fairplay, Feathered Indian, and Feathered Brave. In addition, its subordinate units exercised with surface to air missiles.

Service Streamers. None.

Campaign Streamers. None.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. None.

Decorations. None.

Emblem  Azure, issuing from sinister base a demi sphere bendwise vert gridlined and rimmed or edged with a styled cloud formation argent, surmounted by a lightning flash originating in base and extending to chief in bend of the last voided gules and charged in base with an oval of the first bearing a mullet argent, all within a diminished bordure of the like. (Approved 28 Jul 1970.)

Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 1 Jul 1987.

Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 1 Jul 1987.
24AD
Lineage  Established as 24 Air Division on 18 Nov 1969. Activated on 19 Nov 1969. Inactivated on 30 Sep 1990..

Assignments  Tenth Air Force, 19 Nov 1969; Aerospace Defense Command, 1 Dec 1969; Tactical Air Command, 1 Oct 1979; First Air Force, 6 Dec 1985-30 Sep 1990.

Components  Sectors. Northeast Air Defense: 1 Jul 1987-30 Sep 1990. Southeast Air Defense: 1 Jul 1987-30 Sep 1990  Groups. 778 Air Defense: 1 Mar 1970-17 Jan 1974. 779 Air Defense: 1 Mar 1970-17 Jan 1974.

Squadrons. 5 Fighter Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-1 Jun 1983. 17 Defense Systems Evaluation: 1 Jul 1974-13 Jul 1979 (detached 1 Jul 1974-13 Jul 1979). 18 Fighter Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-15 Apr 1971. 49 Fighter-Interceptor: 23 Sep 1983-7 Jul 1987. 71 Fighter-Interceptor: 19 Nov 1969-1 Jul 1971. 87 Fighter-Interceptor: 23 Sep 1983-1 Oct 1985. 319 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Jul 1971-30 Apr 1972. 460 Fighter Interceptor: 16 Apr 1971-30 Jun 1974. 4677 Defense Systems Evaluation: 2 Oct 1972-1 Jul 1974 (detached 2 Oct 1972-1 Jul 1974).


Stations  Malmstrom AFB, MT, 19 Nov 1969; Griffiss AFB, NY, 1 Dec 1983-30 Sep 1990.

Commanders  Maj Gen Richard S. Abbey, 19 Nov 1969; Col Franklin C. Crain, 1 Apr 1971 (temporary); Maj Gen Richard S. Abbey, 26 Apr 1971; Maj Gen William S. Harrell, 29 Jul 1971; Maj Gen Lawrence J. Fleming, 28 Feb 1973; Col Thomas W. Liner, 28 Jun 1974; Maj Gen Louis G. Leiser, 30 Jul 1974; Col David B. Ballou, 29 Mar 1977 (interim); Maj Gen Don D. Pittman, 29 Apr 1977; Maj Gen Walter H. Baxter III, 29 Sep 1978; Col Donald R. Williams, 22 Jan 1979; Brig Gen John H. Bennett, 11 Feb 1980; Col Donald R. Williams, 17 Nov 1980; Brig Gen Milford E. Davis, 27 Feb 1981; Col George A. Kersey Jr., 12 Aug 1982; Brig Gen Kenneth W. North, 23 Sep 1983; Brig Gen David M. Goodrich, 1 Oct 1985; Brig Gen Lester P. Brown, 18 Jul 1988-c. 30 Sep 1990.

Aircraft  F-101, 1969-1971; F-106, 1969-1987; EB-57, 1974-1979.

Operations  In 1969, the division assumed responsibility for the air defense of Montana, North and South Dakota, Wyoming, and parts of Nebraska, Utah, Nevada, and Idaho. By 1973, this area included parts of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico. Tactical units assigned to the 24th participated in numerous training exercises such as Feudal Indian, Vigilant Overview, and Feudal Keynote. Between 1969 and 1979, the division also controlled several radar squadrons. On 1 Oct 1979, the 24th Air Division became a component of Tactical Air Command, but remained stationed in Montana, and its mission continued to be one of equipping, administering, training, and providing combat ready air defense forces for the operational control of NORAD.

Service Streamers. None.

Campaign Streamers. None.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. None.

Decorations. Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards: 1 Sep 1970-30 Jun 1972; 1 Jul 1974-30 Jun 1976; 1 Jul 1977-30 Jun 1978.

Emblem  Per quarter fimbriated or, first quarter chequy alternating sable and argent, second and third quarter azure, on the second quarter a head in armor couped at the neck with visor open gray and of the second, on the third quarter thirteen mullets of five points argent, fourth quarter gray bearing two flight symbols bend sinister-wise sable, overall in pale a sword, point to chief blade gray and sable, base gray, hilt and guard or, all within a diminished bordure of the last. (Approved 27 Jan 1972.)

Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 30 Sep 1990.

Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 30 Sep 1990.
25AD Lineage  Established as 25 Air Defense Division on 27 Sep 1948. Activated on 25 Oct 1948. Redesignated 25 Air Division (Defense) on 20 Jun 1949. Inactivated on 1 Feb 1952. Organized on 1 Feb 1952. Redesignated: 25 Air Division (SAGE) on 1 Mar 1959; 25 Air Division on 1 Apr 1966. Inactivated on 30 Sep 1990
Assignments  Fourth Air Force, 25 Oct 1948; Air Defense Command, 1 Apr 1949; Fourth Air Force, 8 Jul 1949 (attached to Western Air Defense Force, 10 Nov 1949-1 Aug 1950); Western Air Defense Force, 1 Aug 1950-1 Feb 1952. Western Air Defense Force, 1 Feb 1952; Air Defense Command, 1 Jul 1960; Fourth Air Force, 1 Apr 1966; Tenth Air Force, 15 Sep 1969; Aerospace Defense Command, 1 Dec 1969; Tactical Air Command, 1 Oct 1979; First Air Force, 6 Dec 1985-30 Sep 1990.

Components  Sectors. Northwest Air Defense: 1 Jul 1987-30 Sep 1990. Portland Air Defense: 8 Jun 1958-1 Apr 1966. Reno Air Defense: 15 Feb 1959-1 Jul 1960. Seattle Air Defense: 8 Jan 1958-1 Apr 1966. Southwest Air Defense: 1 Jul 1987-30 Sep 1990. Spokane Air Defense: 8 Sep 1958-1 Sep 1963.

Wings. 325 Fighter: 18 Oct 1956-10 Feb 1960; 1 Apr 1966-1 Jul 1968. 4700 Air Defense: 1 Sep 1958-15 May 1960. 4702 Defense: 7 Nov 1952-8 Oct 1954. 4704 Defense: 10 Dec 1952-8 Oct 1954.

Groups. 84 Fighter: 15 Aug-1 Sep 1958. 325 Fighter: 18 Aug 1955-18 Oct 1956. 326 Fighter: 18 Aug 1955-10 Feb 1960. 337 Fighter: 18 Aug 1955-15 Apr 1960. 408 Fighter: 1 Mar 1959-15 Apr 1960; 15 Sep 1969-1 Oct 1970. 503 Air Defense: 8 Oct 1954-18 Aug 1955. 529 Air Defense: 8 Oct 1954-18 Aug 1955. 567 Air Defense: 8 Oct 1954-18 Aug 1955. 4721 Air Defense: 15 Aug-l Sep 1958.

Squadrons. 5 Fighter-Interceptor: 1 Jun 1983-1 Dec 1987. 318 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Jul 1968-1 Dec 1987. 323 Fighter Interceptor: 26 Nov 1952-19 Jan 1953. 460 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Oct 1970-30 Jul 1974.

Stations  Silver Lake, WA, 25 Oct 1948; McChord AFB, WA, 14 Sep 1951-1 Feb 1952. McChord AFB, WA, 1 Feb 1952-30 Sep 1990.

Commanders  Brig Gen Ned Schramm, 25 Oct 1948; Maj John C. Burnett, 6 Nov 1948; Brig Gen Clinton D. Vincent, 20 Apr 1949-1 Feb 1952. Brig Gen Clinton D. Vincent, 1 Feb 1952; Brig Gen T. Alan Bennett, 1 Apr 1952; Brig Gen Romulus W. Puryear, 15 Sep 1954; Brig Gen Charles R. Bond Jr., 1 Sep 1957; Maj Gen Von R. Shores, 15 Aug 1959; Maj Gen Henry R. Spicer, 13 Aug 1962; Maj Gen William E. Elder, 1 Jun 1964; Brig Gen John A. Rouse, 5 Mar 1966; Col Morris E. Petty, 1 May 1969; Maj Gen Archie M. Burke, 14 Nov 1969; Maj Gen Jack K. Gamble, 13 Mar 1972; Maj Gen James A. Young, by 31 Mar 1974; Brig Gen Elwood A. Kees Jr., 15 Jun 1976; Col Harold A. Homan, 22 Jan 1979; Brig Gen Alfred M. Miller, 1 Feb 1980; Maj Gen Harold W. Todd, 1 Sep 1980; Brig Gen Richard M. Pascoe, 1 Sep 1982; Brig Gen Alan P. Lurie, 4 Sep 1984; Brig Gen John M. Davey, 1 Jul 1987; Unkn, Aug 1989-30 Sep 1990.

Aircraft  F-94, 1952-1954; F-86, 1954-1956, 1958; F-89, 1954-1960; F-102, 1956-1966; F-101, 1959-1966; F-106, 1959-1963, 1966-1985; F-15, 1983-1987.

Operations  The 25th equipped, administered, trained and provided air defense combat ready forces within the northwestern United States, which at various times included the states of Washington, Oregon, and parts of Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, California and Nevada. It exercised command jurisdiction over assigned units, installations, and facilities and provided and maintained facilities for the Air Division control center. In addition, the division and its subordinate units also participated in numerous tactical air defense training exercises.

Service Streamers. None.
 
Campaign Streamers. None.
 
Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. None.

Decorations. Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards: 1 Jan-31 Aug 1970; 1 Sep 1970-30 Jun 1971; 1 Jun 1985-31 May 1987.

Emblem  Per pale azure and vert, issuant from sinister chief bend sinisterwise a lightning flash or surmounted by a telescope in pale proper (brown) and an aircraft volant affrontee bendwise argent, over all three radar rings of the last. (Approved 7 Feb 1963.)

Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 30 Sep 1990

Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 30 Sep 1990
26AD Lineage  Established as 26 Air Defense Division on 21 Oct 1948. Activated on 16 Nov 1948. Redesignated 26 Air Division (Defense) on 20 Jun 1949. Inactivated on 1 Feb 1952. Organized on 1 Feb 1952. Redesignated: 26 Air Division (SAGE) on 8 Aug 1958; 26 Air Division on 1 Apr 1966. Inactivated on 30 Sep 1969. Activated on 19 Nov 1969. Inactivated on 30 Sep 1990..

Assignments  First Air Force, 16 Nov 1948; Air Defense Command, 1 Apr 1949 (attached to Eastern Air Defense Force, 17 Nov 1949 ); First Air Force, 16 Nov 1949 (remained attached to Eastern Air Defense Force to 31 Aug 1950); Eastern Air Defense Force, 1 Sep 1950-1 Feb 1952; Eastern Air Defense Force, 1 Feb 1952; Air Defense Command, 1 Aug 1959; Fourth Air Force, 1 Apr 1966-30 Sep 1969. Tenth Air Force, 19 Nov 1969; Aerospace Defense Command, 1 Dec 1969; Tactical Air Command, 1 Oct 1979. First Air Force, 6 Dec 1985-30 Sep 1990.

Components  Air Force. Air Forces, Iceland: 1 Jul-4 Sep 1963.  Division. Air Division (SAGE) Provisional, 26: attached 15 May 1963-1 Jul 1964.   Sectors. Bangor Air Defense: 15 Aug 1958-1 Apr 1966. 4622 Air Defense Wing (SAGE) (later, Boston Air Defense): 1 Jun-8 Jul 1956; 18 Oct 1956-1 Apr 1966. Detroit Air Defense: 4 Sep 1963-1 Apr 1966. Goose Air Defense (Manual): 1 Jul 1963-1 Apr 1966. Montgomery Air Defense: 1 Jul 1963-1 Oct 1964. 4621 Air Defense Wing (SAGE) (later, New York Air Defense): 1 Apr-8 Jul 1956; 1 Oct 1956-1 Apr 1966. Syracuse Air Defense: 15 Aug 1958-4 Sep 1963. Washington Air Defense: 1 Sep 1958-1 Apr 1966.

Wings. l Fighter: 31 Dec 1969-1 Oct 1970. 33 Fighter: 18 Oct 1956-8 Jan 1957 (under control of 4622 Air Defense Wing [SAGE], 18 Oct 1956-8 Jan 1957). 78 Fighter: 1 Apr 1966-15 Sep 1969; 19 Nov-31 Dec 1969. 551 Airborne Early Warning and Control: 1 Jul 1959-1 Apr 1966. 4707 Air Defense: 1 Mar-18 Oct 1956. 4709 Defense (later, 4709 Air Defense): 16 Feb 1953-1 Oct 1956. 4710 Defense (later, 4710 Air Defense): 16 Feb 1953-1 Mar 1956.

Groups. 408 Fighter: 1 Apr 1966-15 Sep 1969. 414 Fighter: 19 Nov-31 Dec 1969. 503 Aircraft Control and Warning: attached 1 Apr-15 Nov 1949, assigned 16 Nov 1949-1 Feb 1952 (not operational, 25 Mar 1950-1 Feb 1952). 751 Air Defense: 1 Mar 1970-17 Jan 1974. 858 Air Defense: 1 Mar 1970-17 Jan 1974.

Squadrons. 82 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Apr-25 Jun 1966 (detached 1 Apr-25 Jun 1966). 84 Fighter Interceptor (later, 84 Fighter Interceptor Training): 1 Oct 1970-27 Feb 1987. 456 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Apr 1966-18 Jul 1968. 4758 Defense Systems Evaluation: 19 Nov 1969-31 Oct 1970.

Stations  Mitchel AFB, NY, 16 Nov 1948; Mitchel AFB Sub Base #3, Roslyn, NY, 18 Apr 1949-1 Feb 1952. Mitchel AFB Sub Base #3, Roslyn (later, Roslyn AFS), NY, 1 Feb 1952; Syracuse AFS, NY, 15 Aug 1958; Hancock Field, NY, 14 Feb 1959; Stewart AFB, NY, 15 Jun 1964; Adair AFS, OR, 1 Apr 1966-30 Sep 1969. Luke AFB, AZ, 19 Nov 1969; March AFB, CA, 31 Aug 1983-1 Jul 1987.

Commanders  Unkn (manned at paper unit strength), 16 Nov 1948-31 Mar 1949; Col Ernest H. Beverly, c. 1 Apr 1949; Brig Gen Russell J. Minty, by Nov 1949; Col Hanlon H. Van Auken, 1953; Brig Gen James W. McCauley, 1 Apr 1953; Brig Gen Thayer S. Olds, 26 Oct 1955; Brig Gen Arthur C. Agan Jr., 1 Aug 1957; Maj Gen Sam W. Agee, 8 Aug 1958; Brig Gen Ernest H. Beverly, c. May 1960; Brig Gen William E. Elder, c. Jun 1960; Brig Gen Ernest H. Beverly, 20 Jun 1960; Brig Gen Henry Viccellio, 11 Jul 1960; Maj Gen Arthur C. Agan Jr., 1 Jul 1963; Brig Gen Thomas B. Whitehouse, 8 Jun 1964; Maj Gen Von R. Shores, 20 Jul 1964; Maj Gen Gordon H. Austin, 29 Jul 1965; Brig Gen Frank W. Gillespie, 1 Apr 1966; Col Wayne E. Rhynard, 29 Jul 1966; Col Harry L. Downing, by Sep 1969-c. 30 Sep 1969. Brig Gen Sanford K. Moats, 19 Nov 1969; Brig Gen Richard G. Cross Jr., Aug 1970; Brig Gen James E. Paschall, 1 Dec 1971; Brig Gen Ranald T. Adams Jr., 21 May 1973; Brig Gen Dan A. Brooksher, 30 Aug 1974; Maj Gen Thomas E. Clifford, 19 Apr 1976; Brig Gen James S. Creedon, 7 Sep 1978; Col Allan E. Aaronson, 22 Jan 1979; Col Frank T. Faha, 15 Mar 1979; Brig Gen James S. Creedon, 2 Feb 1980; Brig Gen Thomas W. Sawyer, 1 Aug 1980; Col Henry D. Canterbury, 27 Jan 1982; Col Richard A. Pierson, 7 Jun 1982; Brig Gen Christian F. Dreyer Jr., 22 May 1985; Brig Gen John M. Davey, 15 Aug 1986-1 Jul 1987.

Aircraft and Missiles  F-84, 1953; F-86, 1953-1960; F-94, 1953-1960; F-89, 1956-1959, 1963-1966; F-102, 1957-1966, 1966-1969, 1969-c. 1980; F-104, 1958-1960, 1963-1964; BOMARC, 1959-1966; F-101, 1959-1966, 1966-1969; F-106, 1959-1966, 1966-1969, 1969-1981; B/EB-57, 1969-1970; F-100, 1969-1970; T-33, 1981-1987.

Operations  Beginning in Nov 1948, the division performed air defense over an area that covered much of the industrial northeast, including New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. It employed off shore naval picket ships, fixed "Texas Tower" radar sites, airborne early warning units, and a civilian ground observer corps program. The latter phased down when the SAGE program was implemented. Improved radar and communications equipment and fighter interceptors, and better techniques and methods, eventually led to the 26th Air Division becoming the first operational SAGE air defense system (l Jan 1959) within Air Defense Command. The 26th's area of control expanded until by 1963 its boundaries extended from the Arctic to the Gulf of Mexico and well toward the center of the United States. In 1961 the division assumed air defense training responsibility for Air National Guard (ANG) units within the area. During the Cuban Crisis of 1962, the division deployed fighter aircraft and part of its airborne early warning and control force to Florida. In Apr 1966, the division, replaced by the First Air Force, moved without personnel or equipment to Adair AFS, Oregon, where it assumed responsibility for the defense of Oregon, part of California and Nevada, gradually phasing down until it replaced the 27th Air Division at Luke AFB, Arizona in Nov 1969. In Oct 1979, it transferred to Tactical Air Command and continued to supervise its assigned components until 1 Jul 1987.

Service Streamers. None.

Campaign Streamers. None.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. None.

Decorations. Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards: 4 Feb 1972-12 Mar 1973; 15 Jul 1975-14 Jul 1977; 16 Jul 1978-15 Jul 1980.

Emblem  Or, three stylized jet aircraft one in chief fesswise, one bend sinisterwise in bend, and one palewise, nose to base in sinister fess azure, arched from sinister base to dexter fess a segment of a globe of the like charged with a stylized building within an atomic symbol argent. (Approved 17 Nov 1960.)


Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 30 Sep 1990.


Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 30 Sep 1990.
27AD Lineage  Established as 27 Air Division (Defense) on 7 Sep 1950. Activated on 20 Sep 1950. Inactivated on 1 Feb 1952. Organized on 1 Feb 1952. Inactivated on 1 Oct 1959. Redesignated 27 Air Division, and activated, on 20 Jan 1966. Organized on 1 Apr 1966. Inactivated on 19 Nov 1969.
Assignments  Western Air Defense Force, 20 Sep 1950-1 Feb 1952. Western Air Defense Force, 1 Feb 1952-1 Oct 1959. Air Defense Command, 20 Jan 1966; Fourth Air Force, 1 Apr 1966; Tenth Air Force, 15 Sep 1969-19 Nov 1969.

Components  Sectors. Los Angeles Air Defense: 15 Feb-1 Oct 1959.

Wings. 1 Fighter: attached 20 Sep 1950-1 Feb 1952; 1-c. 6 Feb 1952. 78 Fighter: 15 Sep-19 Nov 1969.

Groups. 414 Fighter: 18 Aug 1955-1 Oct 1959; 1 Apr 1966-19 Nov 1969. 533 Air Defense: 16 Feb 1953-18 Aug 1955. 4722 Air Defense: 1 Dec 1956-25 Jun 1958

Squadrons. 94 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Mar 1952-18 Aug 1955. 327 Fighter Interceptor: 18 Aug 1955-1 Dec 1956; 25 Jun-3 Jul 1958. 329 Fighter Interceptor: 18 Aug 1955-1 Dec 1956; 25 Jun 1958-1 Oct 1959; 1 Apr 1966-31 Jul 1967. 354 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Nov 1952-16 Feb 1953. 518 Fighter Interceptor: 8 Jan-18 Aug 1955.

Stations  Norton AFB, CA, 20 Sep 1950-1 Feb 1952. Norton AFB, CA, 1 Feb 1952-1 Oct 1959. Luke AFB, AZ, 1 Apr 1966-19 Nov 1969.

Commanders  Col Philip C. Loofbourrow, 20 Sep 1950; Brig Gen Donald R. Hutchinson, 13 Oct 1950-1 Feb 1952. Brig Gen Donald R. Hutchinson, 1 Feb 1952; Brig Gen James W. Andrew, c. 5 Apr 1954; Brig Gen Frank E. Rouse, 30 Sep 1956; Col Brian O'Neill, 16 Jun 1958; Brig Gen Prescott M. Spicer, 10 Jul 1958-1 Oct 1959. Col Leon W. Gray, 1 Apr 1966; Col William C. Sullivan, 5 Sep 1967; Col Dean W. Dutrack, 30 Jul 1968-19 Nov 1969.

Aircraft  F-86, 1950-1952; F-51, 1951-1952. F-94, 1953-1956; F-86, 1955-1956; F-89, 1956-1959; F-102, 1956-1959. F-101, 1966-1968; F-102, 1966-1969; F-106, 1966-1969.

Operations  The division assumed responsibility for the air defense of southern California in Sep 1950 and later southern Nevada. By 1953, its area of control included a small portion of Arizona. In Jan 1966, it gained responsibility for the air defense of southern California, southern Nevada, all of Arizona, and parts of New Mexico. The 27th administered and trained subordinate units, and participated in numerous air defense training exercises. In addition, during the 1960's it supervised training of Air National Guard units with a pertinent mobilization assignment.

Service Streamers. None.
 
Campaign Streamers. None.
 
Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. None.

Decorations. None.

Emblem  Azure, an aircraft gray, carrying two rockets sable, the nose in the form of an eagle's head (white with yellow beak) between four lightning flashes or, two in chief on a cloud issuing argent and two in base; all within a diminished bordure of distinctive outline gules that part on the first fimbriated of the fourth. (Approved 23 Jul 1953.)

Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 19 Nov 1969

Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 19 Nov 1969
28AD Lineage  Established as 28 Air Division (Defense) on 8 Nov 1949. Activated on 8 Dec 1949. Inactivated on 1 Feb 1952. Organized on 1 Feb 1952. Redesignated: 28 Air Division (SAGE) on 1 Jul 1960; 28 Air Division on 1 Apr 1966. Inactivated on 19 Nov 1969. Activated on 1 Apr 1985. Inactivated on 29 May 1992..

Assignments  Fourth Air Force, 8 Dec 1949; Western Air Defense Force, 1 Aug 1950-1 Feb 1952. Western Air Defense Force, 1 Feb 1952; Air Defense Command, 1 Jul 1960: Tenth Air Force, 1 Apr 1966-19 Nov 1969. Tactical Air Command, 1 Apr 1985-29 May 1992.

Components  Sectors  Los Angeles Air Defense: 1 Jul 1960-1 Apr 1966. Phoenix Air Defense: 1 Jul 1960-1 Apr 1966. Reno Air Defense: 1 Jul 1960-1 Apr 1966. San Francisco Air Defense: 15 Feb 1959-1 Aug 1963 (not operational, 15 May-1 Aug 1963).

Wings. 78 Fighter: 18 Oct 1956-1 Jul 1960; 1 Aug 1963-1 Apr 1966. 552 Airborne Early Warning and Control (later, 552 Airborne Warning and Control; 552 Air Control): 1 Jul 1960-1 Apr 1966; 1 Apr 1985-29 May 1992.

Groups. 78 Fighter: 18 Aug 1955-18 Oct 1956. 408 Fighter: 8 Apr 1956-1 Mar 1959.

Squadrons , 5 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Apr 1966-19 Nov 1969. 7 Airborne Command and Control: 1 Apr 1985-29 May 1992. 13 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Apr 1966-30 Jun 1968. 18 Fighter Interceptor: 15 Sep-19 Nov 1969. 29 Fighter Interceptor: 1 Apr 1966-18 Jul 1968. 41 Electronic Combat: 1 Apr 1985-29 May 1992. 71 Fighter Interceptor: 18 Jul 1968-19 Nov 1969 (detached 17 Dec 1968 c. 17 Jun 1969). 82 Fighter Interceptor: 18 Aug 1955-1 Jul 1960. 84 Fighter Interceptor: 7 Nov 1952-16 Feb 1953. 325 Fighter Interceptor: 20 Apr 1953-1 Feb 1954. 413 Fighter Interceptor: 8 Jul 1954-18 Aug 1955. 456 Fighter Interceptor: 18 Oct 1955-1 Jul 1960.

Stations  Hamilton AFB, CA, 8 Dec 1949-1 Feb 1952. Hamilton AFB, CA, 1 Feb 1952; Malmstrom AFB, MT, 1 Apr 1966-19 Nov 1969. Tinker AFB, OK, 1 Apr 1985-29 May 1992.

Commanders  Unkn, 8 Dec 1949-3 Jan 1950; Col William A. Matheny, 4 Jan 1950; Col Hobart R. Yeager, 24 Feb 1951-1 Feb 1952. Col Hobart R. Yeager, 1 Feb 1952; Col Harry M. Pike, 27 Apr 1952; Brig Gen James W. Andrew, 3 Jun 1952; Col Philip H. Greasley, Mar 1954; Brig Gen Monro MacCloskey, 26 Apr 1954; Col James D. Mayden, 8 Jun 1957 (temporary), 1 Jul 1957 (permanent); Brig Gen Curtis R. Low, 16 Aug 1957; Col Howard A. Cheney, 1 Aug 1959; Brig Gen Charles R. Bond Jr., 24 Aug 1959; Maj Gen John D. Stevenson, 1 Jul 1960; Brig Gen Thomas K. McGehee, 5 Jul 1961; Maj Gen Conrad F. Necrason, 21 Jul 1961; Maj Gen Carroll W. McColpin, 1 Apr 1965; Col Leon G. Lewis, 1 Apr 1966; Col William P. Comstock, 31 Jul 1967; Col Edward R. Weed, 25 Sep 1968; Col James M. Fogle, Jun Nov 1969. Brig Gen William K. James, 1 Apr 1985; Brig Gen John D. Logeman, 16 Sep 1986; Brig Gen William J. Ball, 17 Apr 1989-29 May 1992.

Aircraft  F-51, 1949-1952; F-84, 1949-1952; F-89, 1949-1952. F-51, 1952-1955; F-84, 1956-1957; F-89, 1953; 1955-1959; 1966; F-86, 1952-1965; F-94, 1952-1955; F-80, 1953-1956; F-100, 1956-1966; F-101, 1958-1969; F-102, 1958-1966; F-104, 1958-1966; F-106, 1959-1969; RC-121, 1960-1966; F-4, 1960-1963; B/RB-57, 1961-1966; F-105, 1963-1966. E-3, 1985-1992; C-135, 1985-1992; EC-130, 1985-1992; EC-135, 1985-1992.

Operations  In Dec 1949, the 28th Division assumed responsibility for conducting the air defense of an area that embraced California, Utah, Nevada, Colorado, and Arizona. It became part of the Western Air Defense Force in 1950. With no fighter interceptor squadrons directly assigned, the division used interceptors of the 78th Fighter Wing, based at Hamilton AFB, California, as well as ANG interceptors based within its geographical area. By Nov 1954 its geographical boundaries included northern California, southern Oregon, and parts of Nevada and Utah. The division participated frequently in air defense exercises with U.S. Army artillery, U.S. Navy interceptors, and Strategic Air Command bombers. On 15 Feb 1959, it added the San Francisco Air Defense Sector to its components, and the geographical area expanded to include California and Arizona, and parts of Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, and New Mexico. The division gained the Los Angeles, Phoenix, and Reno Air Defense Sectors and also the 552d Airborne Early Warning and Control Wing, whose RC-121 aircraft augmented naval picket ships in providing radar coverage seaward from the west coast of the United States. During 1961, it transitioned to a SAGE system in all four of its sectors. Reorganization in 1963 altered the 28th's boundaries to include the states of Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and parts of California, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico. On 1 Apr 1966, the 28th moved, in name only, to Malmstrom AFB, Montana, and replaced the Great Falls Air Defense Sector. The division's area included Montana and part of North Dakota, and later, parts of South Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Beginning in Apr 1985, the 28th provided theater and Air Force commands with airborne forces for surveillance, warning, command and control, communications, and electronic combat operations. It was the Tactical Air Command single manager for the E-3 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS), EC-130H Electronic Combat Compass Call, EC-130E Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center (ABCCC), and EC-135K Tactical Deployment Control Squadron (TDCS) in support of unified and specified commands. The division in the 1960s and 1970s deployed aircraft and personnel from subordinate units in support of the war in Southwest Asia.

Service Streamers. None.

Campaign Streamers. None.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. None.

Decorations. Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards: 1 May 1985-30 Apr 1987; 1 May 1987-30 Apr 1989; 1 Dec 1989-1 Dec 1991.

Emblem  On a shield azure within a diminutive border or, a griffin passant argent on the embattlement of a wall gules, masoned sable in fess, an arched gateway in the center of the wall or, all issuing out of six waves of water in base, alternating argent and azure. (Approved 14 Mar 1966).

Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 29 May 1992.

Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 29 May 1992
33AD Lineage Established as the 33 Air Division (Defense) on 5 March 1951, Activated on 19 March 1951, Inactivated on 1 February 1952, Organized on 1 February 1952, Redesignated 33 Air Division (SAGE) on 1 January 1960, Discontinued, and inactivated, on 1 July 1961, Redesignated 33 Air Division and activated on 20 January 1966 (not organized), Organized on 1 April 1966, Inactivated on 19 November 1969.

Assignments Air Defense Command, Eastern Air Defense Force 19 March – 20 May 1951, Central Air Defense Force, 20 May 1951 – 1 January 1960, Air Defense Command, 1 January 1960 – 1 July 1961, Air Defense Command, 20 January 1966 (not organized), First Air Force, 1 April 1966 – 19 November 1969[1]

Components Albuquerque Air Defense Sector: 1 January – 1 November 1960, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, Kansas City Air Defense Sector: 1 January 1960 – 1 July 1961, Richards-Gebaur Air Force Base, Missouri

Wings

Groups 328th Fighter Group: 18 August 1955 – 1 March 1956, Richards-Gebaur Air Force Base, Missouri, 546th Aircraft Control and Warning Group, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, 19 March-4 June 1951, 4676th Air Defense Group: 2 March 1954 – 18 August 1955, Richards-Gebaur Air Force Base, Missouri

Squadrons 48th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron: 1 April 1966 – 19 November 1969, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia, 85th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron: 1 November 1952 – 1 March 1956, Scott Air Force Base, Illinois, 95th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron: 1 December 1967 – 19 November 1969, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, 113th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron: 1 April – 1 November 1952, Scott Air Force Base, Illinois

Stations Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma 19 March 1951 – 8 May 1956, Oklahoma City Air Force Station, Oklahoma, 8 May 1956, Richards-Gebaur Air Force Base, Missouri, 1 January 1960 – 1 July 1961, Fort Lee Air Force Station, Virginia 19 April 1966 – 19 November 1969

Commanders

Aircraft

Operations

Service Streamers None.

Campaign Streamers . None.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers None.

Decorations

Emblem
73AD Lineage
Constituted as 5 Heavy Bombardment Processing Headquarters on 9 Feb 1943. Activated on 17 Feb 1943. Redesignated 73 Bombardment Operational Training Wing (Heavy) on 12 Aug 1943. Inactivated on 15 Oct 1943. Redesignated 73 Bombardment Wing, Very Heavy on 19 Nov 1943. Activated on 20 Nov 1943. Redesignated: 73 Bombardment Wing, Very Heavy, Special on 13 Jan 1944; 73 Bombardment Wing, Very Heavy on 24 Jun 1944. Inactivated on 31 May 1946. Activated in the Reserve on 12 Jun 1947. Redesignated 73 Air Division, Bombardment on 16 Apr 1948. Inactivated on 27 Jun 1949. Redesignated 73 Air Division (Weapons) on 1 Apr 1957. Activated on 1 Jul 1957. Redesignated 73 Air Division on 1 Mar 1963. Discontinued, and inactivated, on 1 Apr 1966 and replaced by ADWC.

Assignments
Second Air Force, 12 Aug-15 Oct 1943. XX Bomber Command, 20 Nov 1943; Second Air Force, 2 Jun-30 Jul 1944; Twentieth Air Force, c. 6 Aug 1944; XXI Bomber Command, 9 Nov 1944-16 Jul 1945; Twentieth Air Force, 16 Jul 1945; Fourth Air Force, 7 Dec 1945; Third Air Force, 5 Jan 1946; Strategic Air Command, 21 Mar 1946; Fifteenth Air Force, 31 Mar-31 May 1946. Second Air Force, 12 Jun 1947; Tenth Air Force, 1 Jul 1948-27 Jun 1949. Air Defense Command, 1 Jul 1957-1 Apr 1966.

Components
Wings. 4750 Air Defense: 1 Jul 1957-25 Jun 1960. 4751 Air Defense Missile: 15 Jan 1958-1 Oct 1959. 4756 Air Defense: 1 Jul 1957-1 Jul 1960. 4756 Air Defense: 1 Sep 1962-1 Apr 1966. 4780 Air Defense: 1 Jul 1962-1 Apr 1966.

Groups. 338 Bombardment: 17 Oct 1947-27 Jun 1949. 351 Bombardment: 17 Oct 1947-4 Jun 1948. 381 Bombardment: 4 Jun 1948-27 Jun 1949. 497 Bombardment: 20 Nov 1943-31 Mar 1946. 498 Bombardment: 20 Nov 1943-31 May 1946. 499 Bombardment: 20 Nov 1943-16 Feb 1946. 500 Bombardment: 20 Nov 1943-17 Jan 1946. 4756 Air Defense: 1 Jul 1960-1 Sep 1962.

Squadron. 4751 Air Defense: 1 Jul 1963-1 Apr 1966.

Stations
Walker AAFld, KS, 12 Aug 1943; Smoky Hill AAFld, KS, 30 Jun-15 Oct 1943. Smoky Hill AAFld, KS, 20 Nov 1943; Colorado Springs, CO, 29 Feb-17 Jul 1944; Isley Field, Saipan, 24 Aug 1944-20 Oct 1945; MacDill Field, FL, 15 Jan-31 May 1946. Orchard Place Airport, IL, 12 Jun 1947-29 Jun 1949. Tyndall AFB, FL, 1 Jul 1957-1 Apr 1966.

Commanders
Unkn, 17 Feb-11 Aug 1943; Col Thomas H. Chapman, 12 Aug-15 Oct 1943. Unkn, 20 Nov 1943; Col Thomas H. Chapman, 27 Nov 1943; Brig Gen Emmett O'Donnell Jr., 15 Mar 1944; Col Morris J. Lee, 16 Sep 1945; Col Neil B. Harding, 28 Jan-14 May 1946; unkn, 15-31 May 1946. Brig Gen Milton H. Askins, 1 Jul 1957; Maj Gen Frederick R. Terrell, 1 Jul 1960; Brig Gen Robert W. Burns, 2 Jul 1962; Col Jean H. Daugherty, 8 May 1965; Brig Gen Thomas H. Beeson, 31 Jul 1965-1 Apr 1966.

Aircraft
B-29, 1943-1946. B-57, c. 1957-c. 1960; F-102, c. 1957-c. 1966; F-104, c. 1957-c. 1960; T-33, c. 1957-1966; F-101, c. 1960-c. 1966; F-106, c. 1960-c. 1966.

Operations
As the 73d wing, it first trained in U. S. and then moved to Saipan in Aug 1944. It flew several bombing missions against Truk to gain combat experience before bombing Iwo Jima. In Nov 1944, the 73d began bombing Japan, with only moderate success. Poor weather, the lack of precision radar bombing equipment, and tremendous winds encountered at high altitudes over Japan made accuracy difficult. Consequently, it turned to devastating low altitude incendiary attacks. In addition to Tokyo, Nagoya, and Osaka, the 73d fire bombed numerous Japanese cities until war's end. As the 73d Air Division, it evaluated, upgraded, and determined the proficiency of the Air Defense Command fighter-interceptor and missile squadrons, 1 Jul 1957-1 Apr 1966. The division developed and tested Air Defense Command tactics, equipment, aircraft, guided missiles, and related equipment and armaments. It also maintained active contact with Army, Navy, and other Air Force commands to assure coordinated military effort in the use of rocket and missile ranges, defense plans, air sea land rescue, and airspace and airways directly concerned with the operations of the Air Defense Command Weapons Center.

Service Streamers. World War II American Theater.

Campaign Streamers. World War II: Western Pacific.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamers. None.

Decorations. None.

Emblem
Azure, a diminished border argent, issuant from base and sinister two piles throughout bendwise the sinister overlapping the dexter and terminating upon the border of the last, each charged with an arrowhead sable garnished of the second and emitting a flight trail throughout or edged gules. (Approved 9 Apr 1958.)

Lineage, Assignments, Components, Stations, and Honors through 1 Apr 1966.

Commanders, Aircraft, and Operations through 1 Apr 1966.

Lineage

21 March 1946: Established as Air Defense Command

27 March 1946: Activated as a major command by the United States Army Air Force at Mitchel Field (later, Mitchel Air Force Base), New York

1 December 1948: The USAF establishes the Continental Air Command under both the Air Defense Command and Tactical Air Command

1 July 1950: Deactivated/Discontinued as a major command, Continental Air Command assumed full charge of United States air defense

1 January 1951: Reestablished as a major command

8 January 1951: Air Defense Command headquarters moves from Mitchel Field to Ent Air Force Base, Colorado

14 July 1952: Air Defense Command begins 24-hour Ground Observer Corps operations

1 September 1954: The Continental Air Defense Command is established at Ent Air Force Base as a joint-service force, taking control of Air Force Air Defense Command forces, Army Anti-Aircraft Command forces, and Naval air defense forces

12 September 1957: The North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) is established at Ent Air Force Base as an international organization, taking operational control of Canadian Air Defense Command air defense units and United States Continental Air Defense Command air defense units

31 July 1959: The Ground Observer Corps, active since July 1952, is abolished because of improvements in radar technology

15 January 1968: Re-designated as Aerospace Defense Command

1 July 1973: Continental Air Defense Command and Aerospace Defense Command headquarters begins consolidation and streamlining

4 February 1974: The Department of Defense announces plans for cutbacks in air defense forces showing increasing emphasis on ballistic missile attack warning and decreasing emphasis on bomber defense

30 June 1974: Continental Air Defense Command de-established

1 July 1975: Aerospace Defense Command designated a "Specified Command" taking over Continental Air Defense Command roles and responsibilities

1 October 1979: Aerospace Defense Command inactivated as a Major Command; Air Defense, Tactical Air Command established as a Numbered Air Force equivalent under Tactical Air Command

31 March 1980: ADC Inactivated
Ref: Aerospace Defense Command The Interceptor publication, January 1979 (Volume 21, Number 1).


The Mission

NORAD Patch
North American Aerospace Defense Command
The Air Defense Command (ADC) is organized primarily to discharge Air Force responsibilities for the air defense of the United States. ADC supplies and maintains the major portion of Air Force weapons and real estate for this purpose. It has the responsibility to organize, administer, equip, train, and prepare combat units and combat crews assigned to ADC, and to place under the operational control of the Commander- in-Chief of the Continental and North American Air Defense Commands such elements when they are ready for combat. ADC recommends training needs for the Air National Guard (ANG), assists in its premobilization training, and assumes command over ANG air defense units upon mobilization. In addition, ADC controls the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, and the Texas Towers - radar stations in the Atlantic Ocean. ADC units fly the Lockheed RC-121 Warning Stars which form the aerial seaward extensions of ground radar lines off both ocean coasts of the United States. Basic air defense functions of ADC are: aircraft detection, identification, interception and destruction. ADC is the major component force of both the Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) and the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD).


The History

The War Department established an Air Defense Command on February 26, 1940. This command, operating under the control of the First Army Commander from March 2, 1940, to September 9, 1941, engaged in planning for air defense. Before the United States entered World War II, air defense was divided among the four air districts (later, numbered air forces) based in the United States: First, Second, Third, and Fourth Air Forces. In mid-1944, when the threat of air attack seemed negligible, this air defense organization was disbanded. Subsequently, no real air defense organization existed until the second Air (later Aerospace) Defense Command was established in 1946 as a major command of the Army Air Forces (AAF).

The Air Defense Command was organized on 21 Mar 1946, at Mitchel Field, NY. In December 1948, it was placed under the Continental Air Command and delegated supervision of the build-up of the air defense system. On 1 Jan 1951, it was established as a major air command at Ent AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

The growth and development of the ADC air defense system has been steady. From four day-type fighter squadrons in 1946, the interceptor force grew to sixty all-weather squadrons in 1959. By 1953, a modern radar system had been completed and additional radar units were programmed to blanket the country with medium and high-altitude radar cover. At the same time, the decision was made to extend radar coverage as far from the American borders as possible. An agreement with Canada for mutual defense resulted in the extension of radar coverage into southern Canada in 1952 (the Pinetree Line), and permission was granted by the USAF to erect the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, which became operational under ADC control in 1958; the DEW Line consists of radars and continuous-wave stations along the Arctic Circle from Alaska to Greenland.

Work was begun in 1953 to erect a number of off-shore radars platforms known as Texas Towers. To provide even more distant off-shore coverage, the Airborne Early Warning program was begun, consisting of two wings of Lockheed RC-121 Warning Stars.

In 1953, development of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system began. It was destined to become the nerve center of air defense. The first of the SAGE sectors was put into operation in July 1958, and was rapidly joined by others in the eastern and northern United States during 1959 and 1960. This electronic network is based on the provision of digital computers and ancillary data-transmitting equipment at strategic locations throughout the country. A major purpose of this system is to provide instantaneous information to interceptor aircraft in flight as well as trigger other defensive measures. On 1 Sep 1959, the first BOMARC IM-99A surface-to-air missile squadron became operational, harbinger of a program to replace a part of the manned interceptor force with unmanned interceptor missiles.

To provide far distant early warning of missile attacks, the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) was begun in 1958, with huge radar stations destined for Alaska, Greenland and England; these radars are capable of detecting missiles in flight, deep in the Soviet Union or in other similarly distant territory.

The Aerospace Defense Command declined after the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve gradually assumed more and more of the air defense mission. In 1980 Air Defense Command resources were divided between Tactical Air Command and Strategic Air Command. Some functions of the command passed to the Aerospace Defense Center, a direct reporting unit which inactivated on October 1, 1986.

Established as Air Defense Command on March 21, 1946. Activated as a major command on March 27, 1946. Became an operational command of Continental Air Command on December 1, 1948. Discontinued on July 1, 1950. Reestablished as a major command, and organized, on January 1, 1951. Re-designated Aerospace Defense Command on January 15, 1968. Inactivated on March 31, 1980.


From: Aerospace Defense Command Pamphlet 190-1 (September 1963)
Contributed by John Sheehan

The Bases

Andrews AFB, Maryland
Bunker Hill AFB, Indiana
Castle AFB, California
Charleston AFB, South Carolina
Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona
Dover AFB, Delaware
Dow AFB, Maine
Duluth Municipal Airport, Minnesota
Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota
England AFB, Louisiana
Ent AFB, Colorado
Geiger Field, Washington
George AFB, California
Glasgow AFB, Montana
Goose AB, Canada
Griffiss AFB, New York
Hamilton AFB, California
K.I. Sawyer AFB, Michigan
Kincheloe AFB, Michigan
Kingsley Field, Oregon
Kirtland AFB, New Mexico
Langley AFB, Virginia
Larson AFB, Washington
Lockbourne AFB, Ohio
Loring AFB, Maine
Malmstrom AFB, Montana
McChord AFB, Washington
McCoyAFB, Florida
Otis AFB, Massachusetts
Oxnard AFB, California
Paine AFB, Washington
Portland International Airport, Oregon
Richards-Gebaur AFB, Missouri
Selfridge AFB, Michigan
Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina
Suffolk County AFB, New York
Travis AFB, California
Truax Field, Wisconsin
Walker AFB, New Mexico
Webb AFB, Texas
Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan
Youngstown Municipal Airport, Ohio

The Commanders

Air Defense Command (ADC)
Name
Lt. Gen George Stratemeyer
Maj. Gen Gordon Saville
Lt. Gen Ennis Whitehead
Gen Benjamin Chidlaw
Maj. Gen Frederick Smith, Jr.
(acting)Gen Earle Partridge
Lt. Gen Joseph Atkinson
Lt. Gen Robert Lee
Lt. Gen Herbert Thatcher
Lt. Gen Arthur Agan
From
21 Mar 1946
1 Dec 1948
1 Jan 1951
25 Aug 1951
31 May 1955
20 Jul 1955
17 Sep 1956
15 Aug 1961
1 Aug 1963
1 Aug 1967
To
30 Nov 1948
31 Dec 1950
25 Aug 1951
31 May 1955
19 Jul 1955
17 Sep 1956
15 Aug 1961
31 Jul 1963
31 Jul 1967
31 Dec 1967

Aerospace Defense Command (ADC)
Name
Lt. Gen Arthur Agan
Lt. Gen Thomas McGehee
Gen Seth McKee
Gen Lucius Clay, Jr.
Gen Daniel James, Jr.
Gen James Hill
From
1 Jan 1968
1 Mar 1970
1 Jul 1973
1 Oct 1973
1 Sep 1975
6 Dec 1977
To
28 Feb 1970
1 Jul 1973
1 Oct 1973
31 Aug 1975
5 Dec 1977
30 Nov 1979

Aerospace Defense Center, Tactical Air Command (TAC)
Name
Gen James Hill
Gen James Hartinger
From
1 Dec 1979
1 Jan 1980
To
1 Jan 1980
31 Aug 1980

U.S. Space Command

Air Force Space Command
U.S. Space Command was created in 1985, but America’s military actually began operating in space much earlier. With the Soviet Union’s unexpected 1957 launch of the world’s first man-made satellite, Sputnik I, President Eisenhower accelerated the nation’s slowly emerging civil and military space efforts. The vital advantage that space could give either country during those dark days of the Cold War was evident in his somber words. "Space objectives relating to defense are those to which the highest priority attaches because they bear on our immediate safety," he said.

During the 1960s and 1970s, the Army, Navy and Air Force advanced and expanded space technologies in the areas of communication, meteorology, geodesy, navigation and reconnaissance. Space continued to support strategic deterrence by providing arms control and treaty verification, and by offering unambiguous, early warning of any missile attack on North America.

On September 23, 1985, the Joint Chiefs of Staff confirmed the ever-increasing value of military space systems by creating a new unified command — U.S. Space Command — to help institutionalize the use of space in U.S. deterrence efforts.

The U.S.-led coalition’s 1991 victory in the Persian Gulf War underscored, and brought widespread recognition to, the value of military space operations. Communications, intelligence, navigation, missile warning and weather satellites demonstrated that space systems could be indispensable providers of tactical information to U.S. warfighters.

Since then, U.S. Space Command has further strengthened its focus on warfighting by ensuring that Soldiers and Marines in the foxhole, Sailors on the ship’s bridge, and pilots in the cockpit have the space information they need — when they need it.

Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), created September 1, 1982, is one of nine Air Force major commands, and is headquartered at Peterson Air Force Base, CO. Missile warning and space operations were combined to form Air Force Space Command in 1982, the same year NASA launched the first space shuttle. During the Cold War, space operations focused on missile warning, and command and control for national leadership. In 1991, Operation Desert Storm provided emphasis for the command's new focus on support to the war fighter. ICBM forces were merged into AFSPC in 1993.

AFSPC defends America through its space and intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) operations, vital force elements in projecting global reach and global power. AFSPC is a key factor in implementing the expeditionary aerospace force organizational structure.

Air Force Space Command has two numbered air forces. Fourteenth Air Force provides space warfighting forces to U.S. Space Command, and is located at Vandenberg AFB, CA. Fourteenth Air Force manages the generation and employment of space forces to support U.S. Space Command and North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) operational plans and missions. Twentieth Air Force, located at F.E. Warren AFB, WY, operates and maintains AFSPC's ICBM weapon systems in support of U.S. Strategic Command war plans.

The Space Warfare Center at Schriever AFB, CO, is also part of the command. The center plays a major role in fully integrating space systems into the operational Air Force. Its force enhancement mission looks at ways to use space systems to support warfighters in the areas of navigation, weather, intelligence, communications and theater ballistic missile warning, and how these apply to theater operations. The center is also home to the Space Battlelab.

AFSPC is the major command providing space forces for the U.S. Space Command and trained ICBM forces for U.S. Strategic Command. AFSPC also supports NORAD with ballistic missile warning information, operates the Space Warfare Center to develop space applications for direct war fighter support, and is responsible for the Department of Defense's ICBM follow-on operational test and evaluation program.


AFSPC bases and stations include: Cheyenne Mountain Air Station, Schriever and Peterson AFBs and Buckley Air National Guard Base, Colo.; Onizuka AS and Vandenberg AFB, CA; Cape Canaveral AS and Patrick AFB, FL; Cavalier AS, ND; F.E. Warren AFB, WY; Malmstrom AFB, MT; Clear AS, AK; Thule AB, Greenland; and Woomera AS, Australia. AFSPC units are located around the world, including Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany.

Space lift operations at the East and West Coast launch bases provide services, facilities and range safety control for the conduct of DOD, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and commercial launches. Through the command and control of all DOD satellites, satellite operators provide force-multiplying effects -- continuous global coverage, low vulnerability and autonomous operations. Satellites provide essential in-theater secure communications, weather and navigational data for ground, air and fleet operations, and threat warning. Ground-based radar and Defense Support Program satellites monitor ballistic missile launches around the world to guard against a surprise attack on North America. Space surveillance radars provide vital information on the location of satellites and space debris for the nation and the world. With a readiness rate above 99 percent, America's ICBM team plays a critical role in maintaining world peace and ensuring the nation's safety and security.

AFSPC operates and supports the Global Positioning System, Defense Satellite Communications Systems Phase II and III, Defense Support Program, NATO III and IV communications and Fleet Satellite Communications System UHF follow-on and MILSTAR satellites. AFSPC currently operates the Atlas II, Delta II, Titan II and Titan IV launch vehicles. This includes all of the nation's primary boosters from the Eastern and Western ranges and range support for the space shuttle. AFSPC also operates the nation's primary source of continuous, real-time solar flare warnings. The command also operates a worldwide network of satellite tracking stations to provide communications links to satellites -- a system called the Air Force Satellite Control Network.

Ground-based radars used primarily for ballistic missile warning include the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, PAVE PAWS and PARCS radars. The Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System, Passive Space Surveillance System, phased-array and mechanical radars provide primary space surveillance coverage.

The ICBM force consists, as of mid-1999, of Minuteman III and Peacekeeper missiles that provide the critical component of America's on-alert strategic forces. As the nation's "silent sentinels," ICBMs, and the people who operate them, have remained on continuous around-the-clock alert since 1959 -- longer than any other U.S. strategic force. Five hundred Minuteman III and 50 Peace keeper ICBMs are currently on alert in reinforced concrete launch facilities beneath the Great Plains.

AFSPC is the Air Force's largest operator of UH-1N Huey helicopters, responsible for missile operations support and security.

As of June 1999, approximately 37,200 people, including 25,800 active-duty military and civilians, and 11,360 contractor employees, combine to perform AFSPC missions.

Air Force Space Command brings space to the war fighter by continuously improving the command's ability to provide and support combat forces -- assuring their access to space. In addition, the command's ICBM forces deter any adversary contemplating the use of weapons of mass destruction.

AFSPC has six primary mission areas:
  • Space forces support involves launching satellites and other high-value payloads into space using a variety of expendable launch vehicles. It also operates those satellites once in the medium of space.
  • Space control ensures friendly use of space through the conduct of counterspace operations encompassing surveillance, negation and protection.
  • Force enhancement provides weather, communications, intelligence, missile warning and navigation.
  • Force application involves maintaining and operating a rapid response land-based ICBM force as part of the nation's strategic nuclear triad.
  • Computer Network Defense
  • Computer Network Attack

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